The Perpetual Emigration Fund (PEF) originated in temple covenants to gather and help the poor do likewise. PEF monies were never intended to be a gift but always a loan that was to be paid back. The PEF was the largest program the Church operated in the 19th century. Millions of dollars were expended and tens of thousands of Saints were assisted. The first PEF company emigrated in 1850 under the leadership of Bishop Edward Hunter. By 1852, the PEF turned to Europe to help the saints there. While there were variations of the PEF plan, not everyone chose to come by PEF. In 1880, the Jubilee year of the Church, many of the PEF debts were forgiven. The PEF was disestablished in 1887 due to the efforts of the Federal Government against plural marriage. The PEF provided a great generational uplift for the poor.