By the 25th of June 1856 the first three handcart companies had outfitted and departed Iowa City. It was the next day when another group of 856 saints arrived from England. A second group arrived 12 days later. They were mostly the poor, and they would be the saints of the Willie and Martin Handcart companies. They would experience tragedy in multiples before their journey was through, and it had much to do with the fact that they were so late in arriving in America—and that is where we begin. Why were the saints of ships of Thornton and Horizon so late?